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Finding Adèle …


As the Virginia Historical Society’s registrar, I am responsible for loans, traveling exhibitions, and storage of collections. In addition, I help with research and cataloging collections.

Girl in a Flowered Hat with Fur-Collared Coat by Adèle Clark. Pen and Ink on paper. (Virginia Historical Society 2013.20.80)

In May 2012, I located a collection of unframed canvases and several boxes and drawers of artwork by two Richmond artists, Adèle Goodman Clark (1882–1983) and her best friend, Eleanora “Nora” Houston (1883–1942). Adèle was educated at Miss Virginia Randolph Ellett’s School (now St. Catherine’s) and started teaching at the Art Club of Richmond in the early 1900s where she met Nora. In 1916 they established The Atelier, located at 2nd and Franklin Streets, which became a training ground for a generation of artists. In 1919 they founded the Virginia League of Fine Arts and Handicrafts. They were instrumental in the art community and the women’s suffrage movement in Richmond, being in the group of women who formed the Equal Suffrage League of Richmond in 1909. The league claimed more than 20,000 members by 1919 and was the predecessor of the League of Women Voters.

Drawing by Adèle Clark in 1903. Seated Woman Reading, Charcoal on cardboard. Signed Adèle Clark 03. (Virginia Historical Society 2013.20.87)

Adèle Clark signature, 1903. Close-up of drawing, Seated Woman Reading. (Virginia Historical Society 2013.20.87)

While looking at these works of art, I felt a connection with Adèle, because I used to paint in high school and college, and I still hold my first art teachers from high school in high regard. My teachers from Douglas S. Freeman High School in Richmond, Rita D’Amico and Susan Bright, taught me to appreciate the process of creating art. We can appreciate the artist through their preliminary drawings, sketches, and studies that precede the finished artwork. Because there isn’t an abundance of finished artwork in the “Adèle Clark collection,” it offers insight into the artist’s process.

Photograph, Adèle Goodman Clark, 1915. Close-up of a photograph taken at Capitol Square, Richmond, Virginia during a Suffrage Rally in May 1915. See photograph below. (Virginia Historical Society 2002.225.1)

Photographic portrait of Nora Houston, 1917, by Foster Studio of Richmond, Virginia.

Photograph of the Equal Suffrage League of Richmond taken at Capitol Square, Richmond, Virginia during a Suffrage Rally in May 1915. Adèle Clark is the first woman standing on the left and Nora Houston is shown in the back row, on the middle seat. (Virginia Historical Society 2002.225.1)

The collection numbers more than 500 pieces and was given to the VHS between 1979 and 1991 by three different donors. Unraveling the donation histories and determining which pieces belonged with which donor was part of the cataloging process. In order for the general public to access a museum collection in an online database, there is a process of research and work that must occur for the information to become publicly accessible. The cataloging process includes organizing the collection; recording the number, description, medium, dimensions, noting titles or additional information; and taking a research photograph of each piece.

Charcoal on paper. Lynnside Manor. See the watercolor shown to the right by Adèle Clark which is a close-up of the front of this building. (Virginia Historical Society 2013.21.261)

Doorway by Adèle Clark. This watercolor is a close-up of Lynnside Manor as the charcoal drawing shown to the left. (Virginia Historical Society 2013.20.68)

We started with the thirty unframed canvases and many flat canvases, then located boxes and drawers of drawings, sketches, and studies in charcoal, pencil, pen and ink, gouache and pastels, including some sketchbooks. We were fortunate to find that each piece of art was marked with a unique number. We placed every item in a folder with its number. By mid 2013, I anticipate that all the artwork will be cataloged and ready for more detailed work before it gets entered into the online catalog.

VHS staff member, Elaine Hagy, working on preliminary cataloging of the Adèle Clark collection

Museum intern, Hope Robertson from Meredith College, worked during the summer of 2012 organizing the Adèle Clark collection with VHS staff.

In 1979, Adèle Clark gave the VHS a collection of papers and objects associated with her career and that of Nora Houston. The collections were quite large and the VHS archives staff processed the manuscript collections in two groups—the Adèle Clark Papers and the Nora Houston Papers. The objects and artwork that were not included in the manuscript collections came to the VHS museum department in May and July of 1986. After Adèle’s death in 1983, her niece gave the society more artwork from Clark and Houston’s studio located on Chamberlayne Avenue in the north side of Richmond. These pieces were marked with “ACE” or “AC” numbers and are believed to be primarily works by Adèle Clark. In August 1979, the Maymont Foundation received from Adèle Clark a crate of artwork and a collection of papers attributed to her friend Miss Nora Houston.

Portrait of an Elderly Couple by Adèle Clark. Oil on board. (Virginia Historical Society 2013.20.74)

Portrait of Nora Houston by Adèle Clark. Pastel on paper. (Virginia Historical Society 2013.20.196)

Landscape by Nora Houston. Oil on canvas. (Virginia Historical Society NN 15)

Nora was the niece of Maj. James H. Dooley, who put her through art school in New York. Because the works would not have been displayed in the Dooley’s residence, Maymont, the foundation decided to loan the artwork to the Pre-Conservation Program of Virginia Commonwealth University’s art history department from 1984 to 1990 for use as a study collection. The students were able to catalog the pieces, write condition reports, and practice various treatments.

Oil on canvas, facing treatment. This photograph shows a facing treatment, which is the adhesion of a protective layer, most often tissue paper, upon the face of a fragile painting to prevent loss of the paint during conservation or until conservation is performed. (Virginia Historical Society 2013.21.228)

Each piece of this collection was marked with an “SC.84” number, which made isolating the Maymont donation very easy. We believe the letters stand for “Study Collection.” When the Pre-Conservation Program closed, the Maymont Foundation offered this collection as a donation to the VHS in 1991.

Four versions of Mother and Child using the same printed image in different media and in varying stages of completion. Top left: Oil on canvas (Virginia Historical Society 2013.21.41); Top right: Drawing on canvas, unfinished (Virginia Historical Society 2013.21.38); Bottom left: Printed on tissue, six copies of same design (Virginia Historical Society 2013.21.39.A-E) and Bottom right: Watercolor on paper (Virginia Historical Society 2013.21.40)

Although Adèle Clark and Nora Houston did not always sign their works, because they were studies and sketches, the women did identify some of the subjects in their study pieces, and we are excited about the prospect of matching up and identifying subjects in the artwork we have in the collection. Through the continued efforts of staff and interns, we hope to complete the collection in 2013. We will post updates on the collection through the VHS blog and hope you will follow us online.

Wise Men at Bethlehem by Nora Houston. Gouache on paper. Part VII in a series of artwork. (Virginia Historical Society 2013.21.13)

Catholic Woman’s Club, Richmond, Virginia by Adèle Clark. Drawing, Pencil on paper. (Virginia Historical Society 2013.20.89)

You can also help us with our research. We are looking for other institutions or individuals who have artwork by Adèle Clark or Nora Houston. We are interested in talking to any former art students of Adèle and Nora, as well as any former Pre-Conservation Program students who may have worked with the study collection between 1984 and 1990. We are working with Maymont staff to identify subjects and locations of Nora Houston’s artwork.

This collection, by offering a unique glimpse of the clothing and styles that span three-quarters of the twentieth century, will provide many research opportunities and serve as a valuable resource for studying Virginia history.

Barn and Fence, unsigned. Oil on wood. (Virginia Historical Society 2013.21.303)

Woman in Hat, unsigned. Pen and Ink drawing on the back of a bank receipt. (Virginia Historical Society 2013.21.53)

4 Comments leave one →
  1. William Brunot permalink
    03/29/2013 8:21 am

    Contact me. I wrote an extensive reply that was erased. I have many Adele Clark works, and other things.


  2. William Brunot permalink
    03/29/2013 8:31 am

    Call me I have Adele’s studio easel that she gave me and her big french pallete, with her paint still on it and many other things, paintings, and stories, and tapes of her voice. She and Willoughby were Brunot cousins, and I studied art with her in the 1940’s. I did the best portrait of her (according to her). There are some errors in the published articles on her. I was the only one allowed in the kitchen and upstairs, and in the attic at their house on Chamberlayne. I knew Winny and Henry, and Godpa, Willoughby’s father, who was alive during the Civil War. I spent many hours with them. I painted over some of Nora’s old canvasses, when we ran out of new canvas. I knew some of her other students, who are now dead.

    I have letters from her, and kept in touch over the years until her death. I have a great letter, telling me what are the best and worst paints to use. This is technology tat geos back to Robert Hinri and William Merrit Chase.


  3. William Brunot permalink
    03/29/2013 8:44 am

    I also studied with one of her students, Ned Archer (Known as Edmond Archer) at the Corcoran School of Art in Washington, DC. later, in 1960, and visited his home and studio on Fushee Street. My brother Jim knew him better than I did. That is another story.

    You haven’t heard much about their (Adele and Willoughby and Lelia and Godpa and the Brunots) adventures up in “Goofycrest” in Fairfax, I bet. I have some old photos from the 1920’s of that place – now called Innes…., I think.

    I went to the Virginia State Legislature with Adele once when she was speaking there. She drove in her rusty old chevvy. I had to hold my feet up because there was no floor in the floor of the front seat of her car. I remember seeing the drive shaft rotating under the floor as were went along down Broad Street.

    I have their genealogy and many photos, and my father has many mentions of them in his diaries.




  1. Art Appreciation « Virginia Historical Society's Blog

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