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Well-Behaved Women Seldom Make History


Oftentimes when we think of history we recall the great names, the daring deeds, the larger narratives, and the accomplishments and achievements that fill our history books. And we usually think of the men who made history. Women, however, have also made history. When they’ve stepped outside of the proscribed roles that relegated them to supportive but essential responsibilities, they were considered unusual and sometimes unwomanly. They were not “well behaved” in the eyes of many. Women who drove cars, remained single by choice, dressed differently, and pursued higher education and/or careers were labeled nonconformists and sometimes considered a threat. The suffragists, for example, believed they should have the right to vote; they mounted campaigns to bring attention to their cause. War and the quest to locate a prisoner of war led one woman to mount a campaign during the Vietnam War. The Red Cross became a haven for women who desired leadership roles while still providing for the relief of the distressed. Business owners were an anomaly and faced obstacles yet persevered. The material culture that helps us remember these women and the history they left now resides in our museums. Celebrate Women’s History Month on Saturday, March 28, 2015, from 10:30 to 12:00, with a Behind-the-Scenes tour highlighting selected artifacts about women’s history in American culture.

Dr. Lauranett Lee is Curator of African American History at the Virginia Historical Society. She will be leading Saturday’s tour with Paige Newman, Associate Archivist for Collections Processing, and Rebecca Rose, Registrar.   Read more posts by Lauranett, Paige, and Rebecca.

Scandal in Virginia


While conducting research for the “Virginia is For Lovers” Behind the Scenes tour that I led in January 2015, I came across dozens of sweet, heartwarming love stories in the VHS collection. This is not one of those.

The salacious love life of Warren Seymour Lurty, now memorialized in boxes and boxes of letters, proves to us that romance and marriage were as complicated in the past as they are today and that romantic scandal and politics are not just contemporary companions.

Warren Seymour Lurty was born in Clarksburg in what is now West Virginia in 1839, and he married a woman named Mary C. “Minnie” Newman in 1866. His life seems to have been full of excitement from the beginning: he served in the Staunton Artillery and the 19th Virginia Cavalry during the Civil War, where he rose to the rank of captain, and was captured and imprisoned at Fort Delaware. After the war he pursued a career in politics and law, with mixed success. He tried to run for governor in 1897 but failed to receive the Republican Party nomination.

Lurty possessed a flair for dramatic and sentimental language in his love letters. One, dated November 29, 1886, reads:

I do pray God’s blessing upon you, for if you were to die before me I don’t know what would become of me: how lonesome the world would be without the hope of seeing your dear face.

He wrote many similar letters from this time period with gushing, adoring praise. The only problem: these letters were not written to his wife, Minnie, but to another woman, Annie Sheppard. Lurty describes first meeting Annie “in the hills of W.Va. when [he] was a boy during the war” and that he was ever looking for her after that point and only married Minnie when “weary and worn.” To make things even more complicated, Warren at one point thanked Annie for the gift she sent to Minnie, indicating that the two women at least knew each other and may have even been friends.


Warren wrote this letter to Annie while still married to Minnie. (Mss1 Sh491 a 30)


This correspondence with Annie begins in 1884, eighteen years into his marriage to Minnie. We only have the letters that Warren wrote and Annie saved, but we can discern from Warren’s writings that although Warren was head over heels for Annie and desperate to find a way to be with her, Annie had some reservations. Often times, Warren’s letters read like those of a lawyer building a case for himself, trying to break down Annie’s hesitancy toward acting on their illicit romance.

However, Minnie died in 1894, at which point Warren’s letters to Annie immediately begin to discuss the idea of marriage. But with Warren’s first wife out of the picture and marriage now a real possibility, Annie’s reservations seemed only to strengthen. She held concerns about leaving her mother and about Warren himself—specifically his job prospects and his drinking habit. At one point, Annie recommended Warren take drugs that she believed would cure him of his alleged alcoholism, which enraged Warren. He wrote,

You I have no doubt acted according to your nature, it is a side of it I more had ignored before, or I assure I should never on earth been likely enough to have wanted to marry you. . . . I found my idol of years and years only a human thing and ready to trample the weak and assert power. . . . I commend your conduct and thank God with sincere piety you revealed your . . . disposition before our marriage. (May 23, 1897)

Surprisingly, Warren and Annie were married a year later. Less surprisingly, their marriage seems to have been troubled from the start. The issue of alcoholism was never resolved, and Warren’s letters became shorter, terser, and more bitter. (Perhaps lending credit to Annie’s claims, his health and handwriting also began to decline steadily.) Though he had written for years that nothing could make him happier than to be with Annie, Warren seemed to have been as disappointed with his marriage to her as he was with his marriage to Minnie. Six years after the wedding, he separated from the woman he had desired for decades. He died two years later in 1906, leaving his entire estate to his housekeeper, a woman named Susie Smith.


To read from decades of Lurty’s letters, visit the Reading Room.

Candice Roland is a library clerk at the Virginia Historical Society.  Read other posts by Candice.

Women’s History Month Spotlight: The Richmond Home for Ladies

Original Home at 515 North Seventh Street; in use from 1883-1914.

Original Home at 515 North Seventh Street; in use from 1883-1914.

Play the system. I can think of no better way to describe the strategy adopted by the first women who ran The Richmond Home for Ladies, an elderly care facility for women established in 1883 and still operating today as Covenant Woods. In honor of Women’s History Month, I thought I’d take the opportunity to highlight how the experience of early female volunteers for the organization followed that of many so-called New Women, Progressive-Era feminists who used social reform to establish a role for themselves outside the home. As a whole, these women provided a niche for subsequent generations to gain a greater presence in the workforce and society at large.

Inspired by concern for the welfare of elderly female members of area Methodist and Presbyterian churches, The Richmond Home for Ladies was established by a group of local physicians and clergymen seeking to provide a more attractive and humane alternative to the almshouse. From 1883 to 1987, the home operated under the dual management of two volunteer boards; a Men’s Board of Directors controlled the business and financial affairs, while a Board of Lady Managers was responsible for day-to-day administration. This gendered distribution of responsibilities followed directly the “Separate Spheres” ideology that dominated the period. According to this theory, men held domain over such areas as politics and commerce (“the public sphere”) while women were to serve the home (“the private sphere”) as moral guardians and caretakers. Although retaining the feminine identity of nurturer, female volunteers were able to extend their roles outside of the home as societal caretakers. Many in the first generation of New Women maintained compliance with traditional gender roles to tread lightly in testing the boundaries of the private sphere.

Undated photo of residents.

Undated photo of residents.

Those who served on the Board of Lady Managers may be seen as perfect examples of early New Women. Although they did not receive compensation for their service, the requirements for membership were akin to those of a full time job, and the women took their roles very seriously. According to the by-laws, it was the objective of the board “To supervise the management of the Home, striving to promote the happiness, comfort and welfare of the guests in the Home. To promote interest in and the support of the Home from the churches we represent and others.” The board was run by a group of officers, with terms lasting for two years. All members had to attend regular meetings, report to their churches the needs of the home, visit residents, attend funerals when possible, and serve on committees that in many cases required daily presence in the home.

In looking at the papers of The Richmond Home for Ladies, which are in the collections of the Virginia Historical Society (Mss3 R41566 a FA2), it is clear that volunteers to the Board of Lady Managers put an astounding amount of work into running the home, and they treated their participation as a career. Surviving correspondence and minutes show that they frequently came into conflict with the Men’s Board of Directors, challenging for more control over policies and funding as a result of their familiarity with residents and the home itself. By establishing a platform with which to engage in such work, the women of The Richmond Home for Ladies paved the way for future generations to further extend their reach and become active participants in the workforce.

Claire Hope is Project Archivist at the Virginia Historical Society. Read other posts by Claire.

Meet the Staff: Candice Roland


From answering phone inquiries to photographing new acquisitions, the staff at the VHS have a wide range of talents that help make our collections accessible to the world. Who are the talented men and women of the VHS? In a series of “Meet the Staff” blog posts, we will introduce you to the people who work behind the scenes to collect, preserve, and interpret Virginia history.

Meet the Staff - Candice Roland

What is your job title?

Library Clerk

When did you begin working at the VHS?

April 2014

What are your job duties?

I assist patrons in the Joseph Bryan, John Stewart Bryan, and David Tennant Bryan Reading Room by serving research materials, answering questions, and filling mail orders, among other things. You can learn more about our library and what we offer on the VHS website.

How did you become interested in history?

Growing up in Virginia, I loved visiting nearby historic sites. Places like Monticello, Colonial Williamsburg, and Mount Vernon really made an impact on me. I have always loved stories in general, so studying history came naturally.

What is the favorite part of your job?

I enjoy meeting patrons and hearing about the wide variety of research topics they are pursuing—it’s like a “behind the scenes” preview of the newest books, exhibits, and historic preservation efforts.

What has been your most memorable moment at the VHS?

My most memorable moment in the short time that I have worked at the VHS has been taking a hard hat tour of the new exhibit spaces and learning about all of the exciting new plans to tell the story of Virginia.

What is your favorite item in your office? Why?

Since I do not have a traditional desk, I’ll consider the whole Reading Room my office. I love the bust of Pocahontas that sits behind the Reference Desk. She’s such an impactful figure in the Virginia story—almost mythological—and the dramatic pose and expression really capture that memory of her.

Bust of Pocahontas

This bronze bust of Pocahontas by Griffin Chiles is one of my favorite items at the VHS. (VHS accession number: 1995.27)

What is your favorite collection piece at the VHS?

Right now I would say “The Compleat Housewife” in the Rare Book collection, but my favorite piece changes often.

The Compleat Housewife

“The Compleat Housewife (VHS call number: TX705.S59.1732.Rare)

What is your favorite historical period?

Twentieth century U.S. history.

What are your hobbies?

Hiking, cooking (not baking), and playing viola.

If you did not work at the VHS, what would you be doing?

Taking a photography adventure across the U.S.

Read more blog posts written by Candice.

Fifty shades of grey at the VHS


Anyone who knows me, knows that I love color. My masters’ thesis was about symbolism in color. I drive a metallic pink Vespa. I love my Pantone guide. And I am not afraid to embrace the fact that “pink is my signature color.” 

You could say that because I am the Designer/Visual Communications Officer at the VHS, color is “my thing.” When I first heard about the book Fifty Shades of Grey, I thought that is was a new design book (whether you spell it gray or grey, we all know that grey is the new beige). I knew I was missing something…I could not figure out why I kept seeing people standing in line at the library to add their name to the wait list to read a book about color (I’m guessing that I’m probably not the only designer who was confused about the subject matter of the book). I eventually figured out that Fifty Shades of Grey is a very colorful book, but not the type of color I was expecting. Since I spend so much time surrounded by and thinking about color every day, I thought I would show you a random selection of objects from the VHS collections that include the color grey. So, I invite you to enjoy fifty shades of grey from the VHS.



Do you see any pieces that you like? Visit the VHS website to learn about purchasing a digital reproduction of items from the VHS collection.

Color is all around us and as I am sitting at my desk editing this post, I can see multiple shades of grey in the objects on my desk. So as a bonus photo, here is my non-staged desk. How many shades of grey can you spot?

Nesossis desk

How many shades of grey can you spot in this picture?

Jennifer Rohrbaugh Nesossis is the Designer/Visual Communications Officer at the VHS. Read more posts from Jennifer.

George Washington Quiz: How Much Do You Know About Our First President?


George Washington was a legend in his own time, and some of his later biographers have been careless with the facts. A few of the legends are factual, and some are a mix of fact and fantasy. In honor of Washington and the Presidents’ Day holiday, test your knowledge of “the Father of His Country” with this brief quiz and see if you can separate fact from fiction.


Question: As a young boy, George Washington got into trouble for chopping down a cherry tree with a hatchet. True or False?

This is one of America’s most enduring legends. It first appeared in The Life of Washington (1806) by Mason Locke Weems and gained wider notoriety when it was printed in one of the McGuffey Readers. Most historians consider the tale a myth, but some believe that it is possible Weems heard the tale from a woman who knew the Washington family.

Because there is no proof, the answer is False. If you do believe the tale, the answer is still False because according to the story, Washington confessed his deed (“I can’t tell a lie, Pa . . . I did cut it down with my hatchet”), and as a result, he did not get into trouble.



Question: As a teenager, Washington copied out 110 rules of etiquette. True or False?

 We don’t know many details about Washington as a schoolboy, and he described his education as “defective.” Some time before he was sixteen, he copied pages from a French book of manners, Rules of Civility and Decent Behaviour and Conversation. Perhaps self-conscious about his lack of a gentlemen’s education, these etiquette rules are regarded as formative influences on the development of his character. The answer is True.


Title page of George Washington’s Rules of Civility (Virginia Historical Society, Call number: E312.78 1926)

Title page of George Washington’s Rules of Civility (Virginia Historical Society, Call number: E312.78 1926)


Question: George Washington had wooden dentures. True or False?

By the time of Washington’s inauguration, he had only one tooth left. Four different sets of dentures were made for him. A number of myths are associated with them: one is that Washington had a set of wooden teeth, another is that Paul Revere made a set of false teeth for him. Actually, his first set of dentures was made from elephant tusks and a second from a walrus tusk. The third set, attributed to the artist Charles Willson Peale was lead based with two powerful steel springs. The upper teeth were probably made from cow’s teeth. The last set of teeth, now owned by the Smithsonian, was made of gold and hippo and elephant teeth.

Because of ill-fitting dentures, Washington’s mouth often appears in his portraits to be swollen and uncomfortable. The total effect gave him a somber appearance. The answer is False.

George Washington (Virginia Historical Society, Accession number 2001.200.153)

George Washington (Virginia Historical Society, Accession number 2001.200.153)



Question: Washington contracted smallpox when he was nineteen. True or False?

Smallpox was not common in Virginia when Washington visited Barbados in 1751. He contracted the virus and thereby acquired a life-long immunity. During the American Revolution, smallpox became a deadly threat to both civilians and the military, and Washington ordered that all new army recruits be inoculated. The answer is True.


Question: George Washington was the only president who never lived in the White House. True or False?

Washington selected the site for the White House in 1791, but he never lived there. New York and Philadelphia were the capitals while he was president, and the White House was completed after he died. John Adams and his wife, Abigail, moved into the unfinished house in 1800. Washington is the only president who did not live at the White House, so the answer is True.


Question: George Washington surveyed Natural Bridge in 1750. True or False?

There is no evidence that Washington surveyed Natural Bridge. Other Washington legends associated with the bridge include that he carved his initials on a spot twenty-three feet up the arch and that he tossed a stone to the top. The answer is False.


Postcard of Natural Bridge of Virginia claiming that George Washington surveyed the site in 1750. (Virginia Historical Society, Accession number: 2015.1.24)



Question: George Washington made moonshine at Mount Vernon. True or False?

Washington was the only Founding Father to operate his own whiskey distillery. Five copper stills produced almost 11,000 gallons of whiskey in one year, making it the largest distillery in the country in the eighteenth century. Because Washington paid excise taxes on the whiskey, it was legal and therefore not moonshine. The answer is False.


Question: Virginia’s official state dog is the American foxhound, a breed that George Washington developed. True or False?

An avid sportsman, Washington imported French foxhounds for hunting purposes at Mount Vernon. He bred the hounds with his own black and tan hounds to create a new breed, the American Foxhound. Washington doted on his dogs and gave them playful names like Tipsy, Drunkard, Frisky Moose, and Sweet Lips.

In 1966 the General Assembly adopted the American Foxhound as the state dog.

The answer is True.


"Under My Own Vine and Fig Tree, 1798" by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris . (Virginia Historical Society, Accession number: 1996.49.11)

“Under My Own Vine and Fig Tree, 1798″ by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris . (Virginia Historical Society, Accession number: 1996.49.11)

Question: Which one of these is an image of George Washington?


The answer is all of them depict Washington.

Frances Pollard is Vice President for Research Services at the Virginia Historical Society.  Read more posts by Frances.

Glasgow’s Broken Heart


Miniature portrait on ivory of Ellen Glasgow (1874-1945) in her twenties by I. Carregi. (Virginia Historical Society, Accession number: 1946.2.A)

Valentine’s Day is now what I call a Hallmark holiday, and I support Hallmark by sending Valentines the way some people send Christmas cards! As a child I received a very special Valentine from an anonymous boy in my fifth grade class, which made me feel special, and I have been a Valentine fan from that moment on.

Valentine’s Day cards and the celebrations around the holiday began to escalate during the early twentieth century. Yet, there is one twentieth-century woman who did not receive a valentine from a man to whom she was secretly engaged from 1917 to 1918. Ellen Glasgow was forty-three and an acclaimed Richmond novelist when she first met Henry Watkins Anderson on Easter Sunday 1916 after the death of her father. In her autobiography, The Woman Within, published after her death, Glasgow writes that “I was surprised by the attraction of opposites . . . for my part, I was warmed and thrilled by the man’s vitality” (p. 225).

Henry Watkins Anderson

Henry Watkins Anderson in his Red Cross office in Romania. A portrait of Queen Marie (not his fiancée Ellen Glasgow) hangs on the wall behind his desk. (Virginia Historical Society, Accession number: 2001.1.18)

Henry Watkins Anderson was a Richmond corporate attorney who became an ardent supporter of the Red Cross after the United States entered World War I. Given the rank of colonel by the Red Cross, he was appointed its commissioner to the Balkans. In July 1917, Anderson set sail for the Balkans, and, as Glasgow notes, “we were never nearer in spirit than at that moment—for we were engaged to be married” (p. 230). Watkins wrote her every day on his voyage, but once he arrived in the Balkans, he “vanished into the silence of Rumania” (p. 231). Glasgow finally received a letter after several months, which announced his arrival and mentioned Queen Marie of Romania. After that, silence reigned again.

Queen Marie Of Roumania

Henry Watkins Anderson and Queen Marie on a hospital inspection tour in Romania. (Virginia Historical Society, Accession number 2015.1.1)

Queen Marie of Romania, granddaughter of Queen Victoria, married Crown Prince Ferdinand of Romania in 1893 and began a series of romantic affairs in 1897. She became involved with the Romanian Red Cross in 1916 and met Henry Watkins Anderson on his arrival there in 1917. She writes in her autobiography, Ordeal, that “Colonel Anderson, their chief, put himself entirely at my disposal . . . and I took [him] about to the hospitals” (p. 234). By the week of September 24, 1917, she notes that in their travels “Colonel Anderson quoted poetry and spoke to me of the stars” (p. 240). Anderson had made the transition from Glasgow to Queen Marie. They exchanged gifts, notes, and letters, and a love triangle was born.

Queen Marie Of Roumania

One of the many photographs given to Henry Watkins Anderson by Queen Marie Of Romania in 1921. (Virginia Historical Society, Accession number 2015.1.2)

One month after Valentine’s Day in 1918, the German army overran Romania, and Anderson eventually returned to the United States in June. Queen Marie writes of his departure: “I saw how his heart was wrung and how his soul revolted against this going away which was like an abandonment” (p. 320). Glasgow had a sad Valentine’s Day, having not heard from Anderson since the fall of 1917. Upon his return to Richmond, Anderson visited Glasgow in his Red Cross uniform and could do nothing but talk of Queen Marie. Several weeks later, Glasgow and Anderson quarreled, and she succumbed to depression and “did not care, for I had finished with the living” (p. 238). She tried to commit suicide with sleeping pills, “yet life would not release me” (p. 240).

In November 1918, Anderson returned to the Balkans and then to Richmond in October 1919 with “a half length portrait in oils, of Queen Marie, innumerable generously inscribed photographs in every imaginable costume and pose . . . and a forlorn and pathetic Russian wolfhound from the royal kennels” (pp. 242–43). Anderson and Queen Marie continued to exchange gifts, but it has been said that Glasgow received the greatest gift of all. Her devastating romantic relationship with Anderson gave her the creative spirit to produce her greatest literary works.

Ellen Glasgow, 1946.30

A painting of Ellen Glasgow based on a 1938 photograph published in Glasgow’s autobiography, “The Woman Within”, published after her death in 1954. (Virginia Historical Society, Accession number: 1946.30)

For the most complete information on this love story, come to the Virginia Historical Society and read the late Sara Bearss’s article entitled “Marie of Rumania and Henry Anderson of Virginia: A Faery Queen, A Virginia Knight Errant, A Pulitzer Novelist” (April 1987 issue of Virginia Country).

Paulette Schwarting is Director of Technical Services at the Virginia Historical Society. Read other posts by Paulette. 


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